What happened this week in history

Former England rugby player Austin Healey celebrates his 43rd birthday this week. EMN-161018-141202001
Former England rugby player Austin Healey celebrates his 43rd birthday this week. EMN-161018-141202001

In 1640, the Treaty of Ripon was signed, restoring peace between Scotland and Charles I.

1775 - King George III went before Parliament to declare the American colonies in rebellion, and authorize a military response to quell the American Revolution.

1863 - The Football Association was formed. The rules for soccer were standardised and rugby became a separate game.

1881 - The legendary Gunfight at the OK Corral took place at Tombstone Arizona.

1917 - Felix the Cat made his first cartoon appearance.

1917 - In the Battle of Caporetto, Italy suffered a catastrophic defeat to the forces of Austria-Hungary and Germany. The young unknown Oberleutnant Erwin Rommel captured Mount Matajur with only 100 Germans against a force of over 7,000 Italians.

1929 - It was announced all London buses would be red, after the yellow variety had proved unpopular in trials.

1947 - The Maharaja of Kashmir and Jammu agreed for his kingdom to join India.

1950 - King George VI opened the restored House of Commons, which had been destroyed in an air raid in 1941.

1951 - The Conservatives defeated Labour in the general election by a small majority making Winston Churchill prime minister for the second time.

1958 – Pan American Airways made the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York City to Paris, France.

1974 - The British press coined the phrase Rollermania to describe Bay City Rollers fans tartan-clad hysteria.

1985 - An American child, known only as Baby Fae, was given a baboon’s heart to replace her malformed one.

1985 - The Australian government returned ownership of Uluru (Ayers Rock) to the local Pitjantjatjara Aborigines.

1999 - The House of Lords voted to end the right of hereditary peers to vote in Britain’s upper chamber of Parliament.

2005 - 18-year-old Andy Murray beat British number one tennis player Tim Henman in Basel.

2014 - British forces withdrew from Afghanistan after 12 years, four months and seven days.