In 1633, the Holy Office in Rome forced Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the centre of the Universe in the form he presented it in, after heated controversy.
1772 - Slavery was outlawed in Britain.
1832 - John Howe patented the pin manufacturing machine.
1847 - The doughnut was created.
1893 - The Royal Navy battleship HMS Camperdown accidentally rammed the British Mediterranean Fleet flagship HMS Victoria which sank taking 358 crew with her, including the fleet’s commander, Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon.
1907 - The Northern Line opened on the London Underground.
1910 - The first paying passengers on an airship took off in Germany. The same airship was wrecked in a gale four days later.
1911 - King George V was crowned.
1921 - The first Ulster Parliament was opened.
1931 - 124 Mafia members were jailed for life.
1937 - Joe Louis knocked out defending champion James J Braddock in Chicago to become the heavyweight champion.
1941 - Germany invaded the USSR.
1948 - The ship MV Empire Windrush brought the first group of 492 Jamaican immigrants to Tilbury near London, marking the start of modern immigration to the United Kingdom.
1981 - Mark Chapman pleaded guilty to the first degree murder of John Lennon.
1984 - Virgin Atlantic Airways launched with its first flight from London Heathrow.
1995 - Under a torrent of criticism, John Major resigned as Leader of the Conservative Party and forced a leadership contest. He encouraged his critics to ‘put up or shut up’.
1998 - A Jewish Israeli woman inherited the deeds to the land on which the Auschwitz concentration camp was built.
1999 - The Bank of England launched a new-look £20 note. The increased detailing was thought to make forgery more difficult.