In 1074, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated all married priests.
1562 - Kissing in public was banned in Naples, on penalty of death.
1566 - David Rizzio, private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, was murdered in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh.
1796 - Napolean Bonaparte married his first wife, Josephine de Beauharnais.
1822 - Charles M Graham received the first patent for false teeth.
1831 - The French foreign legion was founded in Algeria.
1842 - The first documented discovery of gold in California occurred at Rancho San Francisco, six years before the California Gold Rush.
1839 - The French Academy of Science announced the Daguerreotype photo process.
1858 - Albert Potts was awarded a patent for the letter box.
1900 - In Germany, women petitioned the Reichstag for the right to take university entrance exams.
1923 - Lenin retired as Soviet leader after suffering a severe stroke. He died the following year.
1932 - Eamon De Valera was elected president of the Irish Free State and pledged to abolish all loyalty to the British Crown
1946 - Tragedy struck the Bolton Wanderers ground, Burden Park, when barriers collapsed during an FA Cup tie, killing 33 supporters and injuring hundreds more.
1950 - Timothy John Evans was hanged for the murder of his daughter. Three years later, wrongful conviction was established when John Christie confessed.
1959 - The Barbie doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York.
1961 - The Russians sent the first dog, Laika, into space on Sputnik 9.
1967 - Stalin’s daughter, Svetlana, defected to the West.
1979 - A volcano was discovered on one of Jupiter’s moons. It was the first volcano found in space.
1996 - American comedian George Burns died, aged 100.
1999 - Singer Tom Jones collected his OBE.
2011 - Space Shuttle Discovery made its final landing after 39 flights.