In 1653, Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of England.
1773 - The Boston Tea Party took place at Griffin’s Wharf in Boston harbour. In a protest at British taxation, activists dumped the tea from three ships into the harbour.
1775 - Novelist Jane Austen was born at Steventon Rectory.
1809 - Napoleon divorced his wife, Josephine, because she had not produced any children.
1850 - The Charlotte Jane and the Randolph took the first of Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton, New Zealand.
1908 - The first issue of Scouting for Boys, the magazine of the scouting movement, was published.
1914 - German battleships under Franz von Hipper bombarded the English ports of Hartlepool and Scarborough.
1922 - The President of Poland, Gabriel Narutowicz, was assassinated by Eligiusz Niewiadomski at the Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw.
1927 - Donald Bradman made his debut in first-class cricket for New South Wales against South Australia. Batting at number seven, he scored a century.
1953 - The White House held its first press conference, with President Eisenhower and 161 reporters.
1955 - The Queen opened new buildings in the centre of Heathrow Airport, part of a new complex designed to handle a growing number of air passengers.
1965 - The Beatles’ Day Tripper/We Can Work it Out was at number one in the UK charts.
1969 - MPs voted by a big majority for the permanent abolition of the death penalty for murder.
1977 - The extension of the Piccadilly Line to Heathrow was opened by the Queen.
1983 - The BBC broadcast the first ever live Match of the Day.
1988 - Edwina Currie resigned over her salmonella claims.
1998 - Operation Desert Fox was launched. British and American forces began bombing raids in Iraq in response to Saddam Hussein’s continued obstruction of UN weapons inspectors.